Baylor, A. L., Shen, E. & Warren, D. (2004). Supporting learners with math anxiety: The impact of pedagogical agent emotional and motivational support. Proceedings of Workshop on Social and Emotional Intelligence in Learning Environments at the International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS), Maceio, Brazil. (pp. 6-12), Springer.
Publication year: 2004

In this experimental study, 67 general education community college students worked with one of four animated agents, differing by motivational support (presence, absence) and affective state (positive, evasive), in learning word percentage problems. Student math anxiety level served as a co-variate in the analysis. Results indicated that the presence of agent motivational support had a significantly positive impact on student self-efficacy and student perception of the agent as human-like and engaging.